CCUS technology is nothing new and is already happening around the world. According to the Global CCS Institute, as of June 2020, there were 24 major CCUS projects either operating or being built and 35 in various stages of development. The average capture capacity of the new facilities is 2.6 million tonnes a year.
Major CCUS Projects
Shell Quest, Canada
The Shell Quest project in Alberta, Canada began operations in 2015 and to date, has captured and store over 5 million tonnes of CO2. The project captures and stores up to 1.2 Mtpa of CO2 from the Scotford steam methane reformer units which produce hydrogen for upgrading bitumen. The CO2 is them transported by pipeline and stored approximately 2,300m underground in a deep geological formation.
The Gorgon CO2 Injection project is part of Chevron’s Gorgon gas development project located at Barrow Island, off the West Australian coast. The CO2 in the natural gas is separated using activated MDEA scrubbing and injected into the Dupuy Formation on Barrow Island at 2,500m depth. The facilities have a CO2 capture and storage capacity of 3.4 – 4.0 Mtpa and is expected to reduce GHG emissions from the Gorgon project by 40%.
The Sleipner CCS project in offshore Norway began in 1996 and was the world’s first commercial CO2 storage project. The natural gas produced from the Sleipner West field contains up to 9 percent CO2, which is separated offshore using amine scrubbers and injected into the Utsira saline formation 800m below the seabed. Each year, lose to a million tonnes of CO2 is captured and stored.
Boundary Dam, Canada
In 2014 the Boundary Dam CCS project became the first CCS project capturing CO2 from a coal fired power plant at commercial scale. Most of the captured CO2 is piped 66km away and injected at the Weyburn field for EOR whilst any unused CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer 2km away as part of the Aquistore project. To date, the project has captured over 3 million tonnes of CO2.
Petra Nova, USA
The Petra Nova CCS project, which started in 2017, is the world’s largest post-combustion CO2 capture system from a coal fired power plant currently in operation. The 240MW Unit 8 of the W. A. Parish power plant near Houston, Texas, has been retrofitted with a 1.4 Mtpa post-combustion CO2 capture facility. Captured CO2 is transported by pipeline 130km to West Ranch Oilfield, Jackson County, for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Carbon capture has reduced Petra Nova’s carbon emissions by 90 percent, the equivalent of taking 350,000 cars from the road.
Enid Fertilizer, USA
The Koch Nitrogen facility, located in Enid (Oklahoma USA) produces nitrogen fertilisers. Since 1982 excess high purity and highly concentrated CO2 is captured from the ammonia and urea plants at a rate of 0.7Mtpa. Once captured, the CO2 is processed, cooled and dehydrated before being transported via a 225km pipeline to oil fields in Southern Oklahoma for EOR.